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Colloidal Silver Scientific References and Books on Colloidal Silver

Contents of this page:



Article Abstracts (7):

Silver References: from American Society of Microbiology

More Silver References 1:

More Silver References 2:


Note the first 2 recent important antiviral references. 

"Study Shows Silver Nanoparticles Attach to and inactivate HIV-1 virus" at  http://www.physorg.com/news7264.html

"SILVER KILLS HIV VIRUSES, STUDY FINDS" at http://www.freemarketnews.com/WorldNews.asp?nid=1401

Texas Department of State Health Services Report of the Texas Legionnaires’ Disease Task Force at  http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/idcu/disease/legionnaires/taskforce/

In November 1996 a major hospital in San Antonio, TX, notified the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) in Austin about an apparent increase in the number of nosocomial Legionnaires’ disease cases in that facility.



'Experiences of the first 16 hospitals using copper-silver ionization for Legionella control: implications for the evaluation of other disinfection”   at http://www.kibsolar.com/content/files/necon/Study_copper_silver_ionisation_in_hospitals.pdf



1.        Water Science and Technology 31:5-6 (1995) 123-129 - Rami Pedahzur et al. - The interaction of silver ions and hydrogen peroxide in the inactivation of E. coli: a preliminary evaluation of a new long acting residual drinking water disinfectant

2.        Water Science and Technology 31:5-6 (1995) 119-122 - J. M. Cassells et al. - Efficacy of a combined system of copper and silver and free chlorine for inactivation of Naegleria fowleri amoebas in water

3.        Water Science and Technology 35:11-12 (1997) 87-93 - R. Pedahzur et al. - Silver and hydrogen peroxide as potential drinking water disinfectants: their bactericidal effects and possible modes of action

4.        Water Science & Technology 42:1-2 (2000) 293-298 - R Pedahzur et al. - The efficacy of long-lasting residual drinking water disinfectantsbased on hydrogen peroxide and silver

5.        Water Science & Technology 42:1-2 (2000) 215-220 - L Liberti et al. - Comparison of advanced disinfecting methods for municipal waste water reuse in agriculture

6.        Accumulation of copper and silver onto cell body of and its effect on the inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

7.        J Water Health - (2006) - David Collart et al. - Efficacy of oligodynamic metals in the control of bacteria growth in humidifier water tanks and mist droplets

8.        Silver Institute at www.silverinstitute.org

9.        Ions are positive, particles are negatively charged at http://www.silver-colloids.com/Papers/IonsAtoms&ChargedParticles.PDF 

10.     "Scientists to tackle illness (MRSA) with 'silver nanobullet' at http://www.physorg.com/news63004522.html

11.     "Method for improving ultraviolet radiation disinfection of water using aqueous silver" US patent number  6,982,039 at http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/

12.     Contract for Water Treatment Chemicals/Pool Ionization by State of Massachusetts at http://www.mass.gov/epp/products/watertreat.htm and at http://www.mass.gov/epp/info/factsheets3/PoolIon2.pdf

13.     "Nanowires common in bacteria? Microbes may use electrically conductive nanowires, 10-20 nm diameter, to help transport electrons, (could be inactivated by silver nanoparticles)" at http://www.the-scientist.com/news/daily/23924/

14.     "Cadbury failed to inform food watchdogs about salmonella contamination at one of its factories, despite nine cases of the bacterium being identified in chocolate over a four-month period", could have been prevented by  silver nanoparticles, at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2006/06/25/ncadbury25.xml&DCMP=EMC-new_25062006.

15.     Safety of non-ionized Silver at World Health Organization at http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/chemicals/silver/en/

16.     "Efficacy of oligodynamic metals (silver and copper) in the control of bacteria growth in humidifier water tanks and mist droplets" by David Collart, Sharifeh Mehrabi, Liah Robinson, Bryan Kepner and Eric A. Mintz, Department of Biological Sciences, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA, 30314, USA, Tel: +01 404 880 6854, Fax: +01 404 880 6640, dcollart@cau.edu, J. Water Health (2006) 149-156 at http://www.iwaponline.com/jwh/004/jwh0040149.htm

17.     "Colloidal Silver Ceramic Filters for Household Water Treatment; Porous ceramic filter coated with colloidal silver • Ceramic material provides physical filtration • Silver acts as a bactericide" at  www.who.int/entity/household_water/resources/Elliot.pdf  Solutions Benefiting Life Institute Ltd.

18.     Study Shows Silver Nanoparticles Attach to HIV-1 virus at  http://www.physorg.com/news7264.html

19.     SILVER KILLS VIRUSES, STUDY FINDS at http://www.freemarketnews.com/WorldNews.asp?nid=1401

20.     The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles "Our results indicate that the bactericidal properties of the nanoparticles are size dependent, since the only nanoparticles that present a direct interaction with the bacteria preferentially have a diameter of ~1–10 nm"  at http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/0957-4484/16/10/059

21.     Antimicrobial powder coatings  at: http://www.pfonline.com/articles/020401.html

22.     Stroke risk linked to bacterial infection at New Scientist vol 178 issue 2392 - 26 April 2003, page 20 http://archive.newscientist.com/secure/article/article.jsp?rp=1&id=mg17823921.800

23.     Bugs trigger attack on heart, New Scientist vol 180 issue 2422 - 22 November 2003, page 20

24.     Heart-breaking bugs; Infections trigger heart disease?, New Scientist vol 169 issue 2284 - 31 March 2001, page 18

25.     Bladder Biofilms: Escherichia coli forms intracellular biofilm-like pods in infected urinary bladders at http://www.biomedcentral.com/news/20030704/03

26.     "BrighamYoungUniversity study shows colloidal silver is as good as penicillin for 17 organisms" at http://www.amsilver.com/dnews2.htm  and at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2002/3/prweb34782.htm and at   http://healthychristianliving.com/bacteria_testing.htm

27.     "Silver Helps Regrow Tissues in Hundreds of Patients - Destroyed Cells Regenerate With Silver-Based Procedure" by Samuel Etris Senior Technical Consultant to The Silver Institute at http://www.silverinstitute.org/news/4a1999.html

28.     "Antibacterial efficacy of a colloidal silver complex", Surg Forum. 1966;17:76-8. by Brentano L, Margraf H, Monafo WW, MoyerCA.

29.     "The Role of Antimicrobial Silver Nanotechnology", A new silver nanotechnology chemistry can prevent the formation of life-threatening biofilms on medical devices. by Bruce Gibbins and Lenna Warner at Medical Device Link, August, 2005 http://www.devicelink.com/mddi/archive/05/08/005.html

30.     "Metallic elixir: Silver may fight what ails you" at http://www.amsilver.com/dnews1.htm

31.     "BACTERIA TESTING of a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent" at http://vitaminlady.com/Special/ASAP_%20SilverSolution.asp

32.     "Gold Powder" at http://www.twinflamedistribution.com

33.     "Scientists work to block bacterial communication by zapping blood" at http://www.msnbc.com/news/858649.asp#BODYor at bacterial communities

34.     Colloidal Silver Database Web Site at http://www.silvermedicine.org/

35.     University study documents the results of a quality colloidal silver product tested against a wide range of illness-causing pathogens. The study proves that colloidal silver is effective as an antibacterial agent against Staphylococcus, Candida, Salmonella and Pseudomonas in laboratory studies ( in-vitro ) at http://www.silvermedicine.org/colloidalsilverstudytexas.html

36.     Article on CS  http://www.curezone.com/foods/silver.html

37.     Canadian BC government report on benefits and safety of Silver at http://wlapwww.gov.bc.ca/wat/wq/BCguidelines/silver/

38.     "BrighamYoungUniversity study shows colloidal silver is as good as penicillin" at http://www.amsilver.com/dnews2.htm

39.     "Metallic elixir: Silver may fight what ails you" at http://www.amsilver.com/dnews1.htm

40.     "BACTERIA TESTING of a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent" at http://vitaminlady.com/Special/ASAP_%20SilverSolution.asp

41.     There are thousands of links and several chat lines on the Internet about Colloidal Silver, such as www.silvermedicine.org  or colloidalsilver2@yahoogroups.com or silver-digest-request@eskimo.com

42.     Review of the best generators on the market at http://www.silvermedicine.org/colloidal-silver-generators.html

43.     "Scots firm unveils lasting anti-MRSA soap containing silver" at http://news.scotsman.com/topics.cfm?tid=303&id=882602006

44.     "Effects of Silver on Wound Management" by  Robert H. Demling, MD;  Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School; Director, Burn-Wound Center, Brigham & Women's Hospital; Leslie DeSanti, RN,; Director, Burn and Wound Care Program, Health South Braintree Rehabilitation Hospital, Research Associate, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachussetts  at  WOUNDS. Demling RH, DeSanti L. Effects of silver on wound management. WOUNDS 2001;13(1 Suppl A):1–15. "addition to antibacterial properties, there appears to be a prohealing property to silver".  At  http://www.2012.com.au/Colloidal_SilverB.html

45.     "Researchers Examine the Environmental Effects of Silver Nanoparticles: Now used in bandages, clothing, cosmetics, car wax, laundries, plastic tubing in beverage plants, hospital operating rooms, toys, food preservative, sewage treatment, drinking water" at http://www.physorg.com/news97944800.html

46.     "Colloidal silver gaining ground as a proven, effective antibiotic remedy" at  http://www.newstarget.com/010038.html

47.     "Garments treated with metallic silver nanoparticles prevent colds and flu"at http://www.physorg.com/preview97384337.html

48.     "Antibacterial silver products finally begin to emerge after years of FDA oppression" at http://www.newstarget.com/010761.html

49.     "EPA uses nanotech regulation ploy to target colloidal silver while ignoring all other nanotech particles" at http://www.newstarget.com/021231.html

50.     "Colloidal silver antibacterial liquid sprayed on Hong Kong subways as public health measure" at  http://www.newstarget.com/020851.html

51.     Clinical Experiments Show Silver Compound Can Help AIDS Patients: Researchers Say Silver Oxide Offsets AIDS Loss of Immune Response by Samuel Etris, Senior Technical Consultant to The Silver Institute at http://www.silverinstitute.org/news/2a1998.htm

52.     Thurman, R.B. and Gerba, C.P. (1989), The Molecular Mechanisms of Copper and Silver Ion Disinfection of Bacteria and Viruses, CRC Critical Reviews in Environmental Control, Vol. 18, Issue 4, pp. 295–315

53.     Silver nanoparticles as antimicrobial agent: Death of E. coli bacteria, by Sondi I, Salopek-Sondi B.,  Center for Marine and Environmental Research, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia. sondi@irb.hr

54.     “New study warns chlorine bad for asthma sufferers” , The World Today - Thursday, 29 May , 2003 at http://www.abc.net.au/worldtoday/content/2003/s867621.htm

55.     Silver facts, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry  at http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/tfacts146.html

56.     Silver and the EPA at http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0099.htm

57.     Trihalomethanes (byproduct of chlorinating water) and Our Water Supply at http://www.southerndatastream.com/thm/index.html#Introduction

58.     Study Shows Silver Nanoparticles attach to HIV-1 virus (joint project between the University of Texas, Austin and MexicoUniversity, Nuevo Leon): "Silver nanoparticles can effectively attack other micro-organisms; prevented the virus from bonding to host cells" at http://www.physorg.com/news7264.html

59.     "Silver Kills HIV Viruses, Study Finds" At www.freemarketnews.com/worldnews.asp?Nid=1401

60.     Warning on recreational water illness (RWI) and why chlorine may not work, "Healthy Swimming 2003" by the CDC at www.cdc.gov/healthyswimming

61.     Biofilm, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biofilm



1.                   The Body Electric: Electromagnetism and the Foundation of Life Robert O. Becker Gary Selden David Bichell

2.                    Nature’s Silver Bullet: Killing the Fear factor by Dr Howard Fisher, 2006, ISBN 0-9736859-2-1

3.                    Silver-Colloids - Do They Work? by Professor Ronald J. Gibbs

4.                    Colloidal Silver : Antibiotic Superhero by Johnny Silverseed

5.                    Colloidal Silver : Making the Safest and Most Powerful Medicine on Earth for the Price of Water by Mark Metcalf

6.                   Colloidal Silver : The Wonder Cure Time Forgot by Tonita d’Raye, 1998

7.                    Colloidal Silver by Zane Baranovsky

8.                    Cross Currents : The Promise of Electromedicine, the Perils of Electropollution - by Robert O. Becker.

9.                    Silver Colloid - The True Picture by William Briggs

10.                 Silver Colloids - Do They Work? by Ronald J. Gibbs

11.               The Colloidal Silver Report by Zoe Adams

12.              The New Silver Solution: An Information Guide to Silver Solutions  by Dr Kenneth Friedman, 1999

13.                 The Micro Silver Bullet by M., Paul Dr. Farber. A Scientifically Documented Answer three of the largest Epidemics in the World: Lyme Disease, Aids Virus, Yeast Infection, and the Common Cold. Forward by Dr. John Parks Trowbridge, M. D.

14.                 Colloidal Silver: A Literature Review: Medical Uses, Toxicology & Manufacture - Second Edition - By John Hill This book is the most comprehensive and objective reference on colloidal silver available.

Article Abstracts:


1. “US SURVEY OF HOSPITALS USING COPPER-SILVER IONIZATION FOR THE CONTROL OF LEGIONELLA” , 5th International Conference on Legionella,September 26-29, 2000, Ulm, Germany, September 26-29, 2000,Janet E. Stout, Y.E. Lin, V.L. Yu, Infectious Disease Section, VA Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA and the University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA


Despite documentation of its efficacy in numerous hospitals, the long term efficacy of copper-silver ionization for controlling Legionella pneumophila in hospital water distribution systems has not been well documented. We conducted a survey of the first 13 hospitals in the U.S. that had implemented copper-silver ionization systems on their hot water systems for Legionella control. The mean bed size was 434 (range 150-700), 61% (8/13) performed transplant operations. 100% (13/13) had diagnosed cases of nosocomial Legionnaires' disease (LD). 30% of the hospitals installed copper-silver ionization because of problems and expense associated with the prior use of hyperchlorination. 50% had previously used thermal eradication. The average number of ionization flow cells installed per hospital was 3.4 (range 1-7), and the average start-up cost was $86,432. 46% (6/13) of hospitals had >30% of distal outlets positive before using ionization, and 0% had > 30% positive after installation. For 46% (6/13) of the hospitals, distal site positivity decreased to 0% positivity. When we conducted the survey, the ionization systems had been in place from 1 to 4 years. Ionization requires regular maintenance and the pH of water should be < 8.0 for optimal performance. Ionization is a viable option for controlling Legionella in hospital water distribution systems.



2. “Disinfection of Bacteria In Water Systems by Using Electrolytically Generated Copper: Silver & Reduced Levels of Free Chlorine”,  AUTHORS: Yahya MT, Landeen LK, Mesina MC, Kutz SM, Schultze R, & Gerba CP PUBLICATION REF: Canadian Journal of Microbiology 36: 109-116, 1990



The recommended minimum level of free chlorine for disinfection of public swimming pools is 1 mg/liter. This level is difficult to maintain due to the chlorine-demanding organic material introduced by bathers themselves as well as the environment. Eye and skin irritation may also occur at the minimum chlorine level needed for effective disinfection. Electrolytically generated copper/silver ions are also microbiocidal and are much less subject to degradation but are slower acting than chlorine. Therefore, the authors tested the hypothesis that using the two methods together would accomplish effective disinfection while reducing the level of free chlorine required.



Two 32-gallon plastic containers, one indoors (temperature range 22 to 25) and the second outdoors exposed to sunlight (temperature range 18 to 36) were filled with tap water. After chemical analysis and adjustment of pH and test levels of disinfectants, bath water and urine were added to stimulate typical swimming conditions. Four treatment regimens were tested: (1) No added disinfectants (2) Free chlorine alone at the generally recommended level of 1 mg/liter (3) Free chlorine at 0.3 mg/liter combined with copper and silver ions at a ration of 400 ug/liter of copper to 40 ug/liter of silver (4) Copper and silver ions alone at the same ratio as above. An isolate of Staphylococcus sp was employed for bacterial challenge testing since previous work had shown that staphylococci are more resistant to disinfection than are coli form bacteria. The experiment was continued for 12 weeks.



In the test of free chlorine alone, location proved to be critical. In the outdoor setting subject to strong sunlight and high temperatures, no residual chlorine could be detected 3 to 4 hours after optimization. Indoor, where environmental factors were much less extreme, a residual level of 0.1 to 0.3 mg/liter was found after 24 hours.

Bacterial counts were kept within drinking water standards (as recommended for swimming pools) by either high levels of chlorine alone or by the combination regimen of copper and silver ions with low levels of chlorine: the difference in total bacterial numbers was not significant. Hen challenged with Staphylococcus sp isolate, the combination of copper and silver ions with low levels of chlorine achieved a 2.4 log 10 reduction in bacterial numbers within 2 minutes, while the single-agent regimes (free chlorine alone, or copper/silver alone) showed only 1.5 & 0.03 log 10 reductions respectively. Under Staphylococcus sp challenge, the combined copper/silver and free chlorine had a faster log 10 reduction of microbial numbers than did treatment with a high level of chlorine alone.



The addition of electrolytically generated copper/silver ions in the radio tested (400 ug/liter copper to 40 ug/liter silver) allowed reduction in the concentration of free chlorine to one third of the level customarily recommended. The use of copper/silver may provide resisting protection in swimming pools after chlorine has been rendered ineffective due to contamination from swimmers and the natural environment.


“Microbiological Evaluation of Copper: Silver Disinfection Units”, AUTHORS: Kutz SM, Landeen LK, YahyaMT, and Gerba CP, Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Progress in Clinical Disinfection. StateUniversity of New York, Bighamton, New York, April 11-13, 1988


PURPOSE: Although chlorination is the traditional method of disinfecting swimming pools, hot tubs, and cooling towers to prevent outbreaks of illness due to pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa, high levels of chlorine can cause eye and skin irritation was well giving rise to a noticeable chlorine odor. The authors evaluated electrolytically generated copper: silver ions alone and in combination with low levels of free chlorine as an alternative method of reducing the bacterial population in water.



The test medium was local well water which was subjected to chemical analysis, filtering, and pH stabilization and used at room temperature. Suspensions of the following organisms were prepared: Escherichia coli, Legionella pneumophila, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella TYPHII, Klebsiella terrigena, and Streptococcus faecalls. Approximately 1 ml of the selected bacterial suspension was added to 99 ml of test medium containing (1) copper: silver ions in a concentration of 400 ug/liter copper to 40 ug/liter silver, (2) free chlorine (0.2 mg/liter) alone, or (3) a combination of copper: silver ions and free chlorine (quantities as above). Cultures were incubated and the bacterial colonies enumerated, after which statistical analysis were performed.



The bacteria tested were inactivated more rapidly in a solution in which electrolytically generated copper and silver ions were added to low levels of chlorine than where either method was used separately. Some organisms were more resistant to treatment than others. In the experiments with Salmonella typehi and Klebsiella terrigena no viable cells were recovered after 30 seconds of exposure to either chlorine alone or to the combined regimen, indicating equal effectiveness when resistance to disinfection is low. On the other hand, Legionella pneumophilia titers decreased more than 5 log 10 values after 7 minutes of exposure to free chlorine (0.2 mg/liters) alone for the same length of time. Similarly, E. coli numbers were reduced by 4.2 log 10 by the combination regimen but by less than 3 log 10 after extended exposure to the copper: silver method without chlorine.



The use of electrolytically generated copper and silver ions in combination with low levels of free chlorine proved an effective method of killing a wide range of pathogenic bacteria under controlled test conditions. Such bacteria are of potential concern in swimming pools and cooling towers.



3. “Inactivation of Poliovirus & Bacteriophage MS-2 by Copper/Silver and Reduced Levels of Free Chlorine”, AUTHORS: Landeen LK, YahyaMT, and Gerba CP,Publication information not available



Viruses tend to be more resistant than bacteria to disinfection regimes. Although chlorination is widely used to control viral contamination, high levels of chlorine promote the formation of organic compounds in water that may be hazardous to human health. An alternative method, copper and silver ion treatment, is known to be effective against bacteria and algae. The authors tested electrolytically generated copper and silver ions, alone and in the presence of reduced levels of free chlorine, in treating water sample to which either bacteriophage MS-2 or poliovirus had been added to test effectiveness against viral contamination.



Purified bacteriophage MS-2 and poliovirus type I were prepared by standard methods in pellet form. The viral pellets were placed in samples of filtered well water. The virus-containing samples were then exposed to one of the following treatment regimens: (1) no added disinfectant, i.e. untreated control; (2) low levels of free chlorine; (3) a combination of copper: silver with free chlorine; (4) copper: silver ions without chlorine; or (5) either copper or silver without chlorine. Experiments were performed in duplicate at room temperature. Linear regression analysis was performed to calculate the viral inactivation rates for each treatment regimen.



The bacteriophage MS-2 inactivation rate for copper alone was significantly higher when the concentration reached 400 ug/liter. The MS-2 inactivation rate for electrolytically generated copper and silver ions together was greater than for either metal alone, suggesting an additive effect. Although not significant for very low levels of chlorine, the addition of 0.3 mg/liter of free chlorine to a 400/40 ug/liter copper/silver regimen significantly enhanced MS-2 inactivation rates.


Similarly for poliovirus, the activation rates achieved with the 400/40 copper/silver regimen were significantly greater as compared with untreated controls. The number of poliovirus were reduced approximately 2.5 log 10 within 72 hours. The addition of 0.3 mg/liter of free chlorine again improved the inactivation rates achieved, although in this case the improvement did not reach statistical significance. Poliovirus showed greater resistance to inactivation by any means tested than did bacteriophage MS-2.



Electrolytically generated copper and silver ions demonstrate efficacy against bacteriophage MS-2; further improvement occurs with the addition of reduced levels of free chlorine. The same regimen is capable of inactivating an enteric virus such as poliovirus in the presence or absence of free chlorine. The same regimen is capable of inactivating an enteric virus such as poliovirus in the presence or absence of free chlorine. Therefore, a regimen in which copper: silver ion treatment is combined with low levels of chlorine should prove useful as a method of disinfecting water against viral contamination.


4. “Persistent silver disinfectant for the environmental control of pathogenic bacteria”, Brady MJ, Lisay CM, Yurkovetskiy AV, Sawan SP. Intelligent Biocides, LLC, 37 Beverlee Road, Tyngsborough, MA 01879, USA.


BACKGROUND: Contaminated surfaces can act as a reservoir for pathogenic microorganisms and potentially exacerbate the risk of infection. Surface disinfection and decontamination provide temporary amelioration against bacterial colonization. Disinfected surfaces eventually become contaminated, thus, mitigating the benefit of the initial disinfection. It is hypothesized that to improve on the current state of the art, a disinfectant should not only immediately disinfect a surface but also provide persistent antimicrobial action after the product has been applied. We describe here a silver-based disinfectant technology designed to provide long-lasting sanitization and disinfection to treated surfaces as evaluated on hard surfaces after repeated environmental insults. METHODS: A comparative evaluation of 6 disinfectant formulations for residual antimicrobial activity after water rinsing was performed. Log reduction of bacterial populations on disinfectant-treated substrates were measured after 30 minutes to 8 hours of exposure and compared with an untreated control. In a similar study, the residual antimicrobial activity of a silver disinfectant was evaluated against antibiotic- and biocide-resistant bacteria also after water rinsing. Further, residual antimicrobial activity of the silver disinfectant was measured after 5 cycles of rinsing, abrasion, and contamination against representative household and nosocomial pathogens (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus faecium, or Salmonella choleraesuis) after 10-minute exposure times. RESULTS: In the comparative assay, only the silver disinfectant and a persistent quaternary ammonium compound disinfectant demonstrated significant residual activity (> or =3.0 log(10) reduction to control) against S aureus whereas only the silver disinfectant demonstrated activity against Pseudomonas. No residual activity (< or = 0.5 log reduction to untreated control) was observed for the other disinfectant products. The silver-based disinfectant also showed significant and equivalent efficacy against antibiotic- and silver-resistant bacteria. In addition, the silver disinfectant was able to achieve significant residual activity in 10 minutes against all organisms tested after 1, 3, and 5 cycles of water rinse, abrasion, and microbial contamination. CONCLUSIONS: The findings show the ability of a new silver-based disinfectant to reduce bacterial populations that contact treated surfaces within minutes, highlight the potential to interrupt cross-contamination from environmental surfaces, and reduce the risk of infection within the home and health care settings.


5. “Silver as a disinfectant”  SILVESTRY-RODRIGUEZ Nadia (1) ; SICAIROS-RUELAS Enue E. (2) ; GERBA Charles P. (2) ; BRIGHT Kelly R. (2) ;

Affiliation(s) du ou des auteurs / Author(s) Affiliation(s)

(1) Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ85721, ETATS-UNIS

(2) Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science, University of Arizona, Building 38, Room 429, Tucson, AZ85721, ETATS-UNIS


Résumé / Abstract

Silver has been used as an antimicrobial for thousands of years. Over the past several decades, it has been introduced into numerous new venues such as in the treatment of water, in dietary supplements, in medical applications, and to produce antimicrobial coatings and products. Silver is often used as an alternative disinfectant in applications in which the use of traditional disinfectants such as chlorine may result in the formation of toxic by-products or cause corrosion of surfaces. Silver has also been demonstrated to produce a synergistic effect in combination with several other disinfectants. Many mechanisms of the antibacterial effect of silver have been described, but its antiviral and antiprotozoal mechanisms are not well understood. Both microbial tolerance and resistance to silver have been reported; however, the effect of silver has been observed against a wide variety of microorganisms over a period of years. Further research is needed to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of silver in these new applications and the effects of its long-term usage.

Revue / Journal Title

Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology   ISSN 0179-5953


6. Copper Silver Distribution System Study: "Intermittent Use of Copper-Silver Ionization for Legionella Control in Water Distribution Systems: A Potential Option in Buildings Housing Individuals at Low Risk of Infection" Clinical Infectious Diseases 1998;26:138-40   Zeming Liu, Janet E. Stout, Marcie Boldin, John Rugh, Warren F. Diven, and Victor L. Yu From the University of Pittsburgh and Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.


"One copper-silver ionization system was sequentially installed onto the hot-water recirculation lines of two hospital buildings colonized with Legionella pneumophila, serogroup 1. A third building with the same water supply and also colonized with Legionella served as a control. Four weeks after activation of the system, distal site positivity for Legionella in the first test building dropped to zero. After operating for 16 weeks, the system was disconnected and installed onto the second test building. Twelve weeks of disinfection reduced the distal site positivity for Legionella in the second test building to zero. Legionella recolonization did not occur in the first test building for 6 - 12 weeks and in the second test building for 8 - 12 weeks after inactivation of the system. The control building remained Legionella-positive throughout the experimental period. A significantly higher copper concentration was found in the biofilm taken from a sampling device than in that from water. This is likely to be the reason that the copper-silver ionization system had the residual effect of preventing early recolonization. Our study raises the possibility that one copper-silver unit could be rotated among several buildings to maintain a Legionella-free environment. Such an approach may be cost-effective for buildings housing individuals at low risk for contracting legionnaires' disease."


"In the first test building, the Legionella positivity was reduced from 50% (before start-up) to zero after 4 weeks."


7. “Copper Silver Effectiveness Study: "Individual and combined effects of copper and silver and silver ions on inactivation of Legionella Pneumophila", Lin Y S E, Vidic R D, Stout J E, Yu V L. Water Research 1996. 8:905-913.




Copper/Silver ionization is a new disinfection method that is being used to eradicate Legionella pneumophila from hospital hot water recirculating systems. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 to copper and silver ions alone and in combination. L. pneumophila serogroup (L. p. sg-1) was completely inactivated (6-log reduction) at copper concentration of 0.1mg/l within 2.5 h, whereas more than 24 h was required to achieve a similar reduction at the highest silver ion concentration tested (0.08 mg/l). Checkerboard method and Gard additive model prediction demonstrated that copper and silver ions in combination could result in additive and synergistic effect depending on the concentration of copper and silver ions. Under the experimental conditions used in this study, synergism of copper/silver ions in eradicating L. p. sg-1 was observed at higher concentration combinations of copper/silver ions (e.g. 0.04/0.04 mg/l) while only an additive effect was observed at lower concentration combinations (e.g. 0.02/0.02 mg/l). This study suggested that both copper and silver ions are effective in inactivating Legionella pneumophila and the combined effect is greater than that seen with either ion alone.


8. “The Walkerton Tragedy: A Case for Risk Reduction using a Multi-Barrier Approach; A Lesson for the Great Lakes?: Pathogenic Organisms in Great Lakes Water Quality”

The waterborne disease outbreak in Walkerton, Ontario in May 2000, caused by contamination from a well that was not adequately chlorinated, highlights the need for constant vigilance and the development of new methods to detect such threats.42 The town of Walkerton, located less than 40 km (23 miles) from Lake Huron, is similar to many towns in the Great Lakes basin. The circumstances leading up to the tragic disease outbreak in Walkerton were the result of a cascade of human errors, accounted for in lost lives, lost health, lost productivity, and loss of public trust. This tragedy must not be repeated. In his review of the incident, Justice Dennis O’Connor concluded that the risk of unsafe drinking water could be reduced to a negligible level by introducing a multiple barrier approach, or a number of measures independent of each other, as a comprehensive barrier to waterborne contamination.43 The Ontario Ministry of Environment has embarked on a legislative approach to drinking water safety through the Safe Drinking Water Act and regulations and in June 2004 posted a draft source protection legislation on its Environmental Bill of Rights Registry. The Canadian report, From Source to Tap, conveys a similar message that the protection of drinking water sources (source water), along with several layers of treatment at drinking water treatment plants such as coagulants, filtration and disinfection processes, provide a multiple barrier approach that minimizes risks to public health.44




Silver References: from American Society of Microbiology at  www.aem.asm.org


1.       “Silver as a Residual Disinfectant to Prevent Biofilm Formation in Water Distribution Systems”, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. doi:10.1128/AEM.02237-07, University of Arizona, January 2000

2.       “Tucson municipal tap water added silver nitrate” at http://aem.asm.org/cgi/reprint/AEM.02237-07v1.pdf 
This corrosive form of silver is the least biocompatible yet considered safe to 0.1 ppm. More biocompatible silver atoms are produced by electrolytic ionizers.

3.       “Efficacy of a combined system of copper and silver and free chlorine for inactivation of Naegleria fowleri amoebas in water”, Cassells, J. M., M. T. Yahya, C. P. Gerba, and J. B. Rose. 1995. Water Sci. Technol. 31:119-122.

4.       “Anti-infective efficacy of silver-coated medical prostheses”. Darouiche, R. O. 1999. Clin.Infect. Dis. 29:1371-1377.

5.       “Development and functions of silver in water-purification and disease-control.”  Davis, R. I., and S. F. Etris. 1997. Catal. Today 36:107-114. .[CrossRef]

6.       “A mechanistic study of the antibacterial effect of silver ions on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus”.  Feng, Q. L., J. Wu, G. Q. Chen, F. Z. Cui, T. N. Kim, and J. O. Kim. 2000J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 52:662-668. [CrossRef][Medline]

7.       “Using silver to reduce catheter-associated urinary tract infections Gentry, H., and S. Cope. 2005.. Nurs. Stand. 19:51-54. [Medline]

8.       “Occurrence, significance, and detection of Klebsiella in water systems”. Geldreich, E. E., and E. W. Rice. 1987. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 79:74.

9.       “Control of bacterial growth in water using synthesized inorganic disinfectant (silver)”. Kim, J., M. Cho, B. Oh, S. Choi, and J. Yoon. 2004. Chemosphere 55:775-780. [Medline]

10.   “Factors promoting survival of bacteria in chlorinated water supplies”. LeChevallier, M. W., C. D. Cawthon, and R. G. Lee. 1988. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54:649-654.

11.   “Riddle of biofilm resistance” Lewis, K. 2001. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:999-1007. .[Free Full Text]

12.   “Interaction of silver-nitrate with readily identifiable groups – relationship to the antibacterial action of silver ions” Liau, S. Y., D. C. Read, W. J. Pugh, J. R. Furr, and A. D. Russell. 1997.. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 25:279-283. [CrossRef][Medline]

13.   “Negative effect of high pH (alkaline) on biocidal efficacy of copper and silver ions in controlling Legionella pneumophila”  Lin, Y. S., R. D. Vidic, J. E. Stout, and V. L. Yu. 2002.. Appl.18 Environ. Microbiol. 68:2711-2715. [Abstract/Free Full Text]

14.   “Controlled evaluation of copper-silver ionization in eradicating Legionella pneumophila from a hospital water distribution system” Liu, Z., J. E. Stout, L. Tedesco, M. Boldin, C. Hwang, W. F. Diven, and V. L. Yu. 1994. J. Infect. Dis. 169:919-922. .[Medline]

15.   “Development of a standard test to assess the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm cells to disinfectants” Luppens, S. B. I., M. W. Reij, R. W. L. van der Heijden, F. M. Rombouts, and T. Abee. 2002.. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:4194-4200.

16.   “In Vitro Evaluation of the efficacy of a silver-coated catheter”. Curr. Microbiol. 33:1-5Manal, M. G., M. S. Mayo, L. L. May, R. B. Simmons, and D. G. Ahearn. 1996.

17.   Efficacy of thermal treatment and copper-silver ionization for controlling Legionella pneumophila in high-volume hot water plumbing systems in hospitals” Mietzner, S., R. C. Schwille, A. Farley, E. R. Wald, J. H. Ge, S. J. States, T. Libert, R.M. Wadowsky, and S. Miuetzner. 1997. Am. J. Infect. Control. 25:452-457. .[CrossRef][Medline]

18.   “Potable water and biofilms: a review of the public health implications Percival, S. L., and J. T. Walker. 1999.. Biofouling 42:99-115.

19.   “Antimicrobial activity and action of silver Russell, A.D., and W. B. Hugo. 1994.. Prog. Med. Chem. 31:351-370. [Medline]

20.   “Formation of natural biofilms during chlorine dioxide and U.V. disinfection in a public drinking water distribution system” Schwartz, T., S. Hoffmann, and U. Obst. 2003.. J. Appl.Microbiol. 95:591-601. [CrossRef][Medline]

21.   “Inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila by silver in tap water” Silvestry-Rodriguez, N., K. R. Bright, D. C. Slack, D. R. Uhlmann, and C. P. Gerba. 22 2007.. J. Environ. Sci. Health Part A 42:1-6.

22.   “Persistence of two model enteric viruses (B40-8 and MS-2 bacteriophages) in water distribution pipe biofilms” Storey, M. V., and N. J. Ashbolt. 2001.. Water Sci. Technol. 43:133-7 138. [Medline]

23.   “Experiences of the first 16 hospitals using copper-silver ionization for Legionella control: implications for the evaluation of other disinfection  modalities” Stout. J. E., and V. L. Yu. 2003.. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 24:563-568. .[CrossRef][Medline]

24.   “The molecular mechanisms of copper and silver ion disinfection of bacteria and viruses”. Thurman, R. B., and C. P. Gerba. 1989. CRC Crit. Rev. Environ. Control. 18:295-315.

25.   “Corrosion manual for internal corrosion of water distribution systems”. United States Environmental Protection Agency. 1984. EPA/570/9-84/001, Office of Drinking Water, Washington, D.C.

26.   “Control of biofilm growth in drinking water distribution systems”  United States Environmental Protection Agency. 1992. Seminar publication:. EPA/625/R-92/001, Office of Research and Development, Washington, D.C.

27.   “Distributing drinking water without disinfectant: highest achievement or height of folly?”  van der Kooij, D., S. van Lieverloo, J. Schellart, and P. Hiemsra. 1999. J. Water Supply: Res. Technol. - Aqua 48:31-37. [CrossRef]

28.   “Microbial biofilm formation in DUWS and their control using disinfectants”.Walker, J. T., and P. D. Marsh. 2007 J. Dent. 35:721-730.Wong, A. C. L. 1998. Biofilms in food processing environments. J. Dairy Sci. 81:2765- 2770. [CrossRef][Medline]

29.   “Guidelines for drinking water quality” World Health Organization. 2004. Chemical fact sheets, p. 433-434. In, 3rd ed., vol. 1.

30.   “Major origin of mutagenicity of chlorinated drinking water in China”. Zhou, S. W., F. D. Xu, S. M. Li, R. X. Song, Y. Zhang, and Y. P. Bao. 1997:. Sci. Total Environ.:191-196. [CrossRef][Medline]


More References 1:


1.       Allen, M. J., and E. E. Geldreich. 1977. Distribution line sediments and bacterial regrowth. Proceedings of the American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Kansas City, MO.

2.       American Water Works Association. 1995. Water quality, 2nd edition. Principles and practices of water supply operations, p. 168-169. American Water Works Association, Washington, DC.

3.       Auer, J., R. Berent, C. K. Ng, C. Punzengruber, H. Mayr, E. Lassnig, C. Schwarz, R. Puschmann, P. Hartl, and B. Eber. 2001. Early investigation of silver-coated Silzone heart valves prosthesis in 126 patients. J. Heart Valve Dis. 10:717-723.[Medline]

4.       Batté, M., B. M. R. Appenzeller, D. Grandjean, S. Fass, V. Gauthier, F. Jorand, L. Mathieu, M. Boualam, S. Saby, and J. C. Block. 2003. Biofilms in drinking water distributions. Rev. Environ. Sci. Biotechnol. 2:147-168.[CrossRef]

5.       Bezanson, G., S. Burbridge, D. Haldane, and T. Marrie. 1992. In situ colonization of polyvinyl chloride, brass, and copper by Legionella pneumophila. Can. J. Microbiol. 38:328-330.[Medline]

6.       Blaker, J. J., A. R. Boccaccini, and S. N. Nazhat. 2005. Thermal characterizations of silver-containing bioactive glass-coated sutures. J. Biomater. Appl. 20:81-98.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

7.       Cicalini, S., F. Palmieri, and N. Petrosillo. 2004. Clinical review: new technologies for prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Crit. Care 8:157-162.[CrossRef][Medline]

8.       Flemming, H. C. 1995. Sorption sites in biofilms. Water Sci. Technol. 32:27-33.

9.       Gabriel, M. M., M. S. Mayo, L. L. May, R. B. Simmons, and D. G. Ahearn. 1996. In vitro evaluation of the efficacy of a silver-coated catheter. Curr. Microbiol. 33:1-5.[CrossRef][Medline]

10.   Hoyle, B., J. Jass, and J. Costerton. 1990. The biofilm glycocalyx as a resistance factor. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 26:1-5.[Free Full Text]

11.   Ionescu, A., N. Payne, A. G. Fraser, J. Giddings, G. L. Grunkemeier, and E. G. Butchart. 2003. Incidence of embolism and paravalvar leak after St. Jude Silzone valve implantation: experience from the Cardiff Embolic Risk Factor Study. Heart 89:1055-1061.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

12.   LeChevallier, M. W., C. D. Cawthon, and R. G. Lee. 1988. Factors promoting survival of bacteria in chlorinated water supplies. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54:649-654.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

13.   Ludmány, Z., M. Borsányi, and M. Vargha. 2006. Evaluation of biofilms occurring in drinking water distribution systems of Balatonfüred, p. 501-507. In L. Simeonov, and E. Chirila (ed.), Chemicals as international and accidental global environmental threats. Lavoisier, Cachan Cedex, France.

14.   Luppens, S. B. I., M. W. Reij, R. W. L. van der Heijden, F. M. Rombouts, and T. Abee. 2002. Development of a standard test to assess the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm cells to disinfectants. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:4194-4200.[Abstract/Free Full Text]

15.   Ramage, G., M. M. Tunney, S. Patrick, S. P. Gorman, and J. R. Nixon. 2003. Formation of Propionibacterium acnes biofilms on orthopaedic biomaterials and their susceptibility to antimicrobials. Biomaterials 24:3221-3227.[CrossRef][Medline]

16.   Rogers, J., A. T. Dowsett, and C. W. Keevil. 1995. A paint incorporating silver to control mixed biofilms containing Legionella pneumophila. J. Ind. Microbiol. 15:377-383.[CrossRef][Medline]

17.   Ruberto, F., F. Pugliese, A. D'Alio, S. Martelli, K. Bruno, V. Marcellino, S. Perrella, A. Cappannoli, V. Mazzarino, A. Tosi, G. Novelli, M. Rossi, S. Ginanni Corradini, G. Ferretti, P. B. Berloco, and P. Pietropaoli. 2007. Clinical effects of use of polymyxin B fixed on fibers in liver transplant patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Transplant. Proc. 39:1953-1955.[CrossRef][Medline]

18.   Silver, S. 2003. Bacterial silver resistance: molecular biology and uses and misuses of silver compounds. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 27:341-353.[CrossRef][Medline]

19.   Slawson, R. M., M. I. Van Dyke, H. Lee, and J. T. Trevors. 1992. Germanium and silver resistance, accumulation, and toxicity in microorganisms. Plasmid 27:72-79.[CrossRef][Medline]

20.   van Hullebusch, E. D., S. Utomo, M. H. Zandvoort, and P. N. L. Lens. 2003. Comparison of three sequential extraction procedures for the fractionation of cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, manganese and iron in anaerobic granular sludges. Talanta 65:549-558.

21.   Wong, A. C. L. 1998. Biofilms in food processing environments. J. Dairy Sci. 81:2765-2770.[Abstract]

22.   World Health Organization. 2004. Guidelines for drinking water quality, 3rd ed., vol. 1, p. 433-434. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.


More References 2:

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2.        Akiyama, H. and Okamoto, S., Prophylaxis of indwelling urethral catheter infection: clinical experience with a modified Foley catheter and drainage system, J. Urol., 121, 40, 1979.

3.        Avakyan, Z.A., Comparative toxicity of heavy metals for certain microorganisms, Microbiology, 36, 366, 1967.

4.        Baenziger, N.C., Description of the structure of three silver-containing drug complexes, First International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD, May 13-14, 1987.

5.        Barranco, S.D. and Colmano, G., Electrical Inhibition of Staphlococcus aureus, Virginia Medical, 646, 1976.

6.        Barranco, S.D., Spadaro, J.A., Berger, T.J., and Becker, R.O., In vitro effect of weak direct current on staphlococcus aureus, Clinical Orthopaedics, 100, 250, 1974.

7.        Bayati, M. A. 1997. Even Carbons Have a Silver Lining: Silver impregnated filters offer extra protection against bacteria. Water Technology, July, 1997.

8.        Bechhold, H. Colloids in Biology and Medicine, N.Y.: D. van Nostrand, 1919, pp. 364-76.

9.        Becker R O., et al., "Electrochemical Mechanisms and the Control of Biological Growth Processes," in Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry, No. 10, pp. 289-338, publ. Plenum Press (1971). USA. .

10.     Becker R. O., et al., "Clinical Exp. With Low Intensity Direct Current Stimulation of Bone Growth," Clin. Orthop. & Rel. Res., vol. 124, pp. 75-83 (1977) . USA. .

11.     Becker R. O., et al., "Experience With Low-Current Silver Electrode Treatment of Nonunion," in Electrical Prop. Bone & Cartilage (ed. C. T. Brighton, et al.), Grune & Stratton (1979), USA. .

12.     Becker R. O., et al., "Treatment of Orthopaedic Infections With Electrically Generated Silver Ions," J. Bone & Joint Surgery, vol. 60-A, pp. 871-88 (1978). USA. .

13.     Becker, R.O. and Esper, C., Electro stimulation and undetected malignant tumors, Clin. Orthop., 161, 336, 1981.

14.     Becker, R.O. and Spadaro, J.A., Treatment of Orthopedic Infections with electrically generated silver ions, J. Bone Jt. Surgery., 60-A, 871, 1978.

15.     Becker, R.O., Effect of anodally generated silver ions on fibrosarcoma cells, Electro- and Magnetobio., 11, 57, 1992.

16.     Becker, R.O., Electrical treatment of osteomyelitis, Surgery of the Musculoskeletal System, Churchill Livingstone, New York, 1983, 4, 10- 197.

17.     Becker, R.O., The effect of electrically generated silver ions on human cells, First International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD, May 13-14, 1987.

18.     Begley S. (1994) "The End of Antibiotics" Newsweek, Mar. 28, 46-51. 

19.     Benvenisty, A.I., Tannenbaum, G., Ahlborn, T.N., Fox, C.L., Modak, S., Sampath, L., Reemtsma, K. and Nowygrod, R., Control of prosthetic bacterial infections: evaluation of an easily incorporated, tightly bound, silver antibiotic PTFE graft, J. Surg. Res., 44,1, 1988.

20.     Berger T. J., et al., "Antifungal Properties of Electrically Generated Metallic Ions," Antimicrob. Agents & Chemother., vol. 10, pp. 856-860 (1976). USA. .

21.     Berger T. J., et al., "Electrically Generated Silver Ions: Quantitative Effects on Bacterial & Mammalian Cells," Antimicrob. Agents & Chemother., vol. 9, pp. 357-358 (1976) USA. .

22.     Berger, T.J., Spadaro, J.A., Bierman, R., Chapin, S.E., and Becker, R.O., Antifungal properties of electrically generated metallic ions, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 10, 856, 1976.

23.     Berger, T.J., Spadaro, J.A., Chapin, S.E., and Becker, R.O., Electrically generated silver ions: quantitative effects on bacterial and mammalian cells, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 9, 357, 1976.

24.     Block, Seymour, Ed.: Disinfection, Sterilization and Preservation, Chapter 18; Lea & Febiger & Co., Philadelphia, 3rd Ed (1983). Extensive bibliography.

25.     Bolton, L., Foleno, B., Means, B., and Petrucelli, S., Direct-current bactericidal effect on intact skin, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 18, 137, 1980.

26.     Bolton, M., The effects of various metals on the growth of certain bacteria, Am. Phys., ?, 174, ?.

27.     Borgstrom L. et al (1986) "Pharmacokinetics of N-acetylcysteine in Man" Eur J Clin Pharmacol 31, 217-22.   

28.     Bragg, P.D. and Rainnie, D.J., The effect of silver ions on the respiratory chain of Escherichia coli, Can. J. Microbiol., 20, 883, 1974.

29.     Buckley, W.R.: Localized Argyria, Arch. Dermatol. 88: 531-539, 1963.

30.     Bullard, M. 2002. Low-Cost Household Water Purifiers for Flood-Prone Areas: International Development Enterprises (IDE) report on filter technology trials to the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC). http://www.potpaz.org/Mekong.doc

31.     Bult, A., Silver sulfanilamides and related compounds for dermatological application, First International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD, May 13-14, 1987.

32.     Burke, J.F., and Bondoc, C.C., Combined burn therapy utilizing immediate skin allografts and 0.5% AgNO3, Arch. Surg., 97, 716, 1968.

33.     Burleson, R., and Eiseman, B., Effect of skin dressings and topical antibiotics on healing of partial thickness skin wounds in rats, Surg. Gynecol. Obstet., 136, 958, 1973.

34.     Burleson, R., and Eiseman, B., Mechanisms of antibacterial effect of biologic dressings, Ann. Surg., 177, 181, 1973.

35.     Butkus M. A., Labare M. P., Starke J. A., Moon K., Talbot M. Use of aqueous silver to enhance inactivation of coliphage MS-2 by UV disinfection. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004 May;70(5):2848-53.

36.     Butts, A., The chemical properties of silver, Silver-Economics, Metallurgy, and Use, ed. Butts, A., Krieger, Huntington, NY 1975, 123.

37.     Carr H. et al (1973) "Silver Sulfadiazine: In Vitro Antibacterial Activity" Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 4, 585-87. 

38.     Carr, H.S., Wlodkowski, T.J., Rosenkranz, H.S., Silver-sulfadiazine: in vitro antibacterial activity, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 4, 585, 1973.

39.     Chambers, C. a. C. P. (1960). The Bacteriological and Chemical Behavior of Silver in Low Concentration. Cincinnati, OH, Division of Water Supply and Pollution Control, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

40.     Chang T.-W. & L. Weinstein (1975) "Inactivation of treponema Pallidum by Silver Sulfadiazine" 7, 538-39. 

41.     Chang T.-W. & L. Weinstein (1975) "Prevention of Herpes Keratoconjunctivitis in Rabbits by Silver Sulfadiazine" 8, 677-78. 

42.     Chu, C.C., Tsai, W.C., Yao, J.Y., and Chiu, S.S., Newly made antibacterial braided nylon sutures. 1. In vitro qualitative and in vivo preliminary biocompatibility study, J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 21, 1281, 1987

43.     Chu, C.S., McManus, A.T., Mason, A.D., Okerberg, C.V. and Pruitt, B.A., Multiple graft harvestings from deep partial-thickness scald wounds healed under the influence of weak direct current, J. Trauma, 30, 1044, 1990.

44.     Chu, C.S., McManus, A.T., Okerberg, C.V., Mason, A.D., and Pruitt, B.A., Weak direct current accelerates split-thickness graft healing on tangentially excised second-degree burns, J. Burn Care Rehab., 12, 285, 1991.

45.     Cieszynski, T., Influence of negative electricity on infected callus and osteitis, Acta Morphologica Acad. Sci. Hung., 15, 309, 1967.

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47.     Codony F, Domenico P, Mas J. 2003. Assessment of bismuth thiols and conventional disinfectants on drinking water biofilms. J Appl Microbiol. 2003;95(2):288-93.

48.     Collinge, C.A., Goll, G., Seligson, D. and Easly, K.J., Pin tract infections: silver vs. uncoated pins. Orthopedics, 17, 445, 1994.

49.     Colmano, G. , Edwards, S.S., Fainter, L.K. and Barranco, S. D., Electronmicrographs of silver and stainless steel surgical implants coated with silver compounds to control S. Aureus by direct current activation, Twenty-eighth Annual ORS, New Orleans, LA, January 19-21, 1982.

50.     Colmano, G., and Barranco, S.D., Inhibition of staphlococcus aureus on a contaminated electrode in the femur of the rabbitt by low electrical current and its relation to stress, Biophys. J., 15, 28a, 1975.

51.     Colmano, G., and Barranco, S.D., Staphlococcus aureus inhibition by low direct current on silver electrodes in the femur of rabbits. Fifty- third Annual meeting of the Virginia Academy of Science, Harrisonburg, VA, May 6-9, 1975.

52.     Colmano, G., Edwards, S.S. and Barranco, S.L., Effects of low direct current on monomolecular layers of metal stearates coating electrodes in bacterial cultures and surgical implants, Symposium URSI “Ondes Electro-magnetiques et Biologie”, Jouy-en-Josas, Juillet, 1980, 149.

53.     Colmano, G., Edwards, S.S., and Barranco, S.D. Activation of antibacterial silver coatings on surgical implants by direct current: preliminary studies in rabbits, _., 41, 964, 1980.

54.     Colmano, G., Edwards, S.S., Lesch, T.E., and Barranco, S.D., Control of Staphlococcus aureus osteomyelitis by microampere activation of metal ions in monomolecular films on stainless steel pins, Fifty-Third Annual Meeting of the Virginia Academy of Science, Harrisonburg, VA, May 6- 9,

55.     Colmano, G., Fainter, L.K., Edwards, S.S., and Barranco, S.D., SEM of S. aureus on current-activated surgical pins coated with silver and silver stearate monolayers, Second Annual BRAGS, Oxford, U.K., Sept. 20-22, 1982.

56.     Colmano, G., Medical Applications of monomolecular films of silver, gold and other metals, International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD, May 13-14, 1987.

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60.     Cullen, J.M. and Spadaro, J.A., Axonal regeneration in the spinal cord: a role for applied electricity, J. Bioelectricity, 2, 57, 1983.

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67.     Eichhom, G.L., Shin, Y.A., Butzow, J.J., Clark, P., and Tarien, E., Interaction of metal ions with biological systems, with special reference to silver and gold, First International Conference on Gold and Silver in Medicine, Bethesda, MD, May 13-14, 1987.

68.     Ellerman-Eriksen, S., Rungby, J., and Morgensen, S.C., Autointerference in silver accumulation in macrophages without affecting phagocytic, migratory or interferon-producing capacity, Virchows Arch., B. 53, 243, 1987.

69.     Ersek, R. A. and Denton, D . R. , Silver-impregnated porcine xenografts for treatment of meshed autografts, Plast. Surg., 13, 482, 1984.

70.     Ersek, R.A., and Denton, D.R., Cross-linked silver-impregnated skin for burn wound management, J. Burn Care Rehabil., 9, 476, 1988.

71.     Ersek, R.A., and Denton, D.R., Nail bed avulsions treated with porcine xenografts, J. Hand Surg., 10A, 152, 1985.

72.     Ersek, R.A., and Denton, D.R., Rhinophyma: treatment with electrocautery and silver-impregnated porcine xenograft, Plast. Reconstr. Surg., 74, 269, 1984.

73.     Ersek, R.A., and Denton, D.R., Silver-impregnated porcine xenograft for damaged or missing skin, Contemp. Surg., 23, 83, 1983.

74.     Ersek, R.A., and Denton, D.R., Treatment of skin graft donor sites using silver-impregnated porcine xenograft, Contemp. Orthop., 12, 27, 1986.

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